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It probable that as each pollen-mass consists several packets pollen-grains, one mass may contain material enough fertilise several flowers each stigma, through its viscid surface, detaching sufficient pollen from the mass for its fertilisation.

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The admirable i need help in my essay adaptation flower insect and insect flower, thus witnessed, in no detail better exemplified than in the fact that the pollen mass at first retains a vertical and then assumes a horizontal position in the insect's head.

So long as the pollen mass vertical, fertilisation impossible and hence the vertical position persists iong as the bee engaged in visiting the flowers the plant from which has derived pollenmasses. Thus self-fertilisation prevented that, as Joseph Hooker puts the time the horizontal position the pollenmass assumed, the bee has visited all the flowers the plant from which took the pollen, and has gone another plant. To enter into further illustration the contrivances through which the fertilisation flowers secured would encroach the province the technical and practical botanist.

Such details are writ large in the pages every botanical text. In the works Mr.

Darwin and especially in the Fertilisation Orchids the reader anxious for further details may find a perfect encyclopaedia facts constituting a veritable romance botanical science. It, however, remains in the present instance point out the plain meaning these virtually marvellous adaptations the plant-world the work cross-fertilisation, and note, as far as possible, the bearing such a study upon the order nature regarded as a harmonious whole. It a perfectly legitimate supposition that if cross-fertilisation form, as have seen, such a prominent feature plant-life, that life must, in some very plain and obvious fashion, benefit therefrom. And further, as plant-life but a part organic nature, may feel perfectly justified in supposing that the conditions professional term paper writers and results which cross-fertilisation tends evoke and produce, will harmonize in their tendency and direction with the course events through which the living universe has been and being moulded, developed, and evolved. To the question, Why does cross-fertilisation appear favoured nature over self-fertilisation ? a plain reply at hand in a comparison the results which accrue from each these processes. Mr. Darwin's laborious researches the comparative fertility various species plants when self-fertilised and crossfertilised, supply an answer the foregoing question showing that in every respect the cross-fertilised flowers yield more seeds, and give rise a stronger and more numerous progeny than the selffertilised.

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The reader who consults Mr. Darwin's Forms Flowers will find himself supplied with ample data in proof the advantages cross-fertilisation.

In the primrose, for instance, average seeds per capsule whilst 1 long-styled flowers, fertilised long-styled pollen, produced only 1 capsules, with an average seeds per capsule. The cowslip gave a similar result and the tendency towards greater vigour ofispring when crossfertilisation employed, appears the most general kind. In some plants, indeed, cross-fertilisation absolutely essential for the mere continuance the race that this method seed-production not merely accidental or advantageous, but absolutely necessary for the continuance the race. Most the orchids illustrate this state matters the presence bumblebees well-nigh an absolute necessity for the continuance the heartsease paraphrasing mla Vioia tricolor and the well-known case the clovers may cited as highly characteristic the benefits developed through crossfertilisatioa Twenty heads Dutch clover, protected Darwin from bees, yielded no seeds whilst twenty heads growing exposed as in a state nature, yielded, seeds. One hundred heads red cloyer protected from bees were absolutely sterile a second hundred exposed yielded, seeds. The scientific demonstration the interdependence living beings becomes in this fashion perfectly clear. Carried out its ultimate results, such demonstration becomes sufficiently startling. British brain and sinew paper writing services for college students depend, according a foreign estimate, home fed beef whilst the quality that nutriment said dependent upon the clover which the subsists. But clover owes its continuance bumblebees bumblebees in turn are killed field-mice, whilst cats extirpate the rodents and as old maids online proofreading course conserve the feline race, alleged that the continuance the British intellect dependent upon such conservation that a scientific justification spinsterhood thus Sprengel laid down the axiom, already mentioned, that Nature does not wish any complete flower self fertilised.